Al-Kahina (c.654- c.702) was a Berber queen of the region then known as Numidia, in modern day Algeria. She became the war leader of the Berber tribes in the 680s, and faced off the Islamic armies in their conquest of north Africa.
The Arabs, led by Hasan Ibn al-Nu’man marched from Egypt and defeated the Byzantines in Carthage. Searching for more enemies, he was told that the single most powerful ruler of North Africa was the queen of the beer era, Al-Kahina. She delivered a crushing defeat to the Arabs, forcing them to retreat their broken army to Libya, where they hid and regrouped for five years. Knowing that the Arabs would return, in greater numbers, she took the fatal decision of embarking on a scorched earth campaign, losing her the support of Oasis dwelling tribes, and hastening her defeat. After her death, she became the center of many myths and legends.
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Areas in North Africa where Berber languages are spoken.