Brazil has an indigenous Indian population of around 450,000, comprising more than 200 peoples who speak more than 180 different languages. According to the National Foundation for the Indian (FUNAI) the indigenous population has been growing at a rate of more than 3.5% per year and is now four times greater than in 1950.
Brazil has the world’s second biggest black population after Nigeria, the largest number of people of Japanese ancestry outside Japan, and more people of Lebanese or Syrian extraction than the combined populations of Lebanon and Syria.
Afro-Brazilian refers to a Brazilian with African ancestry. The term does not have widespread usage in Brazil, where people with noticeable African ancestry are generally referred to as negro or simply “preto (“black“)”, but the term is not considered very politically correct. Another group, multiracial Brazilians, or Pardos also have a significant degree of African ancestry.These two categories are among five color categories used by the Brazilian Census, along with branco (“white”), amarelo(“yellow”, East Asian) and indígena (Amerindian).
In 2010, 7.6% of the Brazilian population, some 15 million people, self-identified themselves as “preto” while 43% (86 million) identified as “pardo”. Pretos tend to be predominantly Sub-Saharan African in ancestry, while Pardos tend to have African ancestry to a lesser degree than pretos. On average pardos are predominantly European, although all three ancestries (European, African and Native American) are often present.